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Pyrgus upperside photos (all 13) Pyrgus underside photos (all 13) Pyrgus uppersides chart
Pyrgus undersides chart ("the 7") Pyrgus undersides chart ("other 7") Pyrgus observations

Comparison of features of uppersides of all 14 Pyrgus species

  wingspan (mm) voltinism flight

altitude range (m) 

ground colour forewing markings hindwing markings
alveus 14-16 single, sometimes a partial second generation Jun-Aug 0-2100 dark grey-brown often with yellow flush smallish white marks, cell spot usually weak, sometimes almost absent marks pale and weak at best, usually almost unmarked
alveus accretus/ centralhispaniae 14-16       yellowish c.f. alveus large prominent white marks marks well developed
andromedae 14-17 single Jun-Jul >(1000)1600 dark grey brown marks well defined, two discal marks in s1 plus a third broadly inline in s2, oblique well-defined discal streaks in s7, cell spot weak marks pale and generally obscure, rather scruffy appearance
armoricanus 12-14 double May-Sep 0-1500 yellow-brown/grey, often a pale sandy basal flush medium-sized white marks complete discal mark pale and strong especially summer/autumn broods
cacaliae 14-16 single Jun-Aug >1500 grey-brown white marks very small, no discal spot in s2 c.f. andromedae unmarked
carlinae 13-14 single midJul-Aug


warm darkish brown cell spot narrow, sometimes divided, letter C outwardly concave, very variable and often only slightly concave but diagnostic as other Pyrgus do not show this concavity weak to medium strong marks, sagittate on submargins
carthami (13)15-18 single May-earlySep 0-2300 large, dark charcoal-grey with pale hair at wing bases white marks well developed, creamy elongated marks, cell often Σ shaped discal and sub-marginal marks long and narrow, quite clear
cirsii 13-14 single lateJul-Sep 0-1500 dark brown cell spot usually wide, usually regularly rectangular, the two post-discal marks in s1b are wide and joined "sinuous" or "waving flag" pale marks clear and strong and distinct, often pale yellow rather than white. H&R says especially marks at base of s4 and s5
foulquieri 14-15 single Jul-Aug 0-2000 hairy at wing bases, underside of end of male abdomen white hair tuft marks complete, strong and clearly white, especially the post-discal series, jagged at edges especially in s1-4 marks complete medium strong, strong discal mark, white mark in basal region (if visible). H&R says post-discal marks large especially in s2 and s3
malvae 11-13 single Apr-Jun 0-2300 dark cold brown often a row of white sub-marginal marks clear-cut row of white sub-marginal marks, sometimes (highly) sagittate, strong smallish discal mark in shape of cleft clothes peg
malvoides 11-13 double in lowlands, single at altitude midMar-Aug     very similar to malvae but the sub-marginal marks are often diffuse very similar to malvae but the sub-marginal marks are often highly sagittate
onopordi 12-14 double or triple Apr-midOct 0-1300 dark brown with slight yellow tint marks strong and clearly defined, especially cell pale marks generally distinct, strongish and not especially pale, pale mark near costa in s7 (not usually visible)
serratulae 12-14, 15-16 in SW France single May-Aug 0-2200 a warm dark brown, female often has brassy-olive tinge marks variable, often (but not always) small weak pale marks, often completely unmarked
sidae 14-17 single May-Jun 0-900 dark brown with greyish hair at wing bases cell spot large, small sub-marginal marks usually complete marks variable, pale and sometimes prominent especially submarginal
warrenensis 11-13 single Jul 1700-2300 very small, narrow forewing very small white marks unmarked

note: the descriptions below only apply to the male of each species. Females are generally similar but more weakly marked.

Female carlinae are generally unmarked except for a few weak marks in the upper half of the upf, and the uph is almost completely unmarked.