Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni)
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2019 photographs highlighted in yellow. Click on any photograph to go to an enlarged picture, or simply scroll down the page.
A very familiar butterfly, which seems to stay fresh and rarely seems battered (except after hibernating), unlike many other species nearing the end of their lives. It could easily be confused with the Cleopatra (G. cleopatra) in southern France as the wing-shape is almost identical except that rhamni is more "pointy" at the forewing apex and to some extent at the hindwing point at v3.
Also the forewing costa of rhamni is usually slightly indented at the centre, giving a sweeping curved appearance, whereas cleopatra is usually slightly convex, although I do not believe this is always the case. I have rather come to the conclusion that it is not always possible to tell the difference with any degree of certainty.
|The extensive orange upf colouration of cleopatra males is quite clear in flight, although less obvious when at rest (neither rhamni nor cleopatra rests with wings open, even for an instant). The male cleopatra underside is more of a pale greenish yellow and the upf orange patches are only visible (from the underside) at certain angles. The female cleopatra lacks the orange upf and is very similar to female rhamni.|
|29578||F||a female engaged in courtship, the male being visible on the right.||1320|
a typical male.
a male and I think rhamni even though the forewing margin is very straight even to the rather unpronounced apex, usually indications of cleopatra. However, the colouration, and the fact that Aisne is nowhere near the cleopatra distribution, confirm rhamni.
a male. I originally thought this might be cleopatra but the forewing apex is sufficiently pointed for rhamni and the general colouring is probably too yellow for cleopatra. The slight concavity of the rhamni forewing costa is not as apparent as other specimens, but I still think 18228 is rhamni.
a male, I think, and rather a pale yellow for rhamni, but the degree of pointedness of the forewing apex is conclusively rhamni.
|34791||F||a female, perhaps less pointed at the forewing apex than the norm.||180|